The story of Cain and Abel is often known in the church as the first murder. Evidence suggests it may be much more than that.
It is possible this is a story that was passed down in the families of hunter-gatherers and farmers. Cain was a hunter-gatherer and Abel was a farmer. Historical evidence has shown that the two groups of people were different, but lived side-by-side. They shared families and their culture. But, this cohabitation wasn’t without conflict.
The farmers came quickly to the hunter-gatherers’ region, causing cultural and population issues.
Due to this conflict, evidence shows this may have been the origin of the story of Cain and Abel. It may be a legend handed down related to the need to kill a neighboring enemy.
This does not deny the story as true, but provides a different, science-related interpretation. It is said in the story that Cain regretted his killing of Abel. God said no one shall kill him for his crime and therefore he had to live with it.
15 But the Lord said to him, “Not so[e]; anyone who kills Cain will suffer vengeance seven times over.” Then the Lord put a mark on Cain so that no one who found him would kill him. 16 So Cain went out from the Lord’s presence and lived in the land of Nod,[f] east of Eden.